Architecture Reaching Ielts Answers and Questions

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  • IELTS Reading True False Not Given
  • IELTS Reading Sentence Completion
  • IELTS Reading Summary Completion

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IELTS Reading Passage – Architecture Reaching for the sky

Architecture reaching for the sky

Building and structure design is the art and science of architecture. A building represents the thoughts and objectives of the customer and designer, as well as the scientific and technical advancements of the time. The design of certain structures, however, is often debatable.

There is no definitive beginning or end date for the application of an architectural style. Furthermore, it is impossible to pinpoint precisely what traits define a certain movement. But the social and technical upheavals of the 18th and 19th centuries are when what is now often referred to as modern architecture first emerged.

Architects started to investigate ways to construct structures utilizing the most recent technology and materials, such as steel, glass, and reinforced concrete, instead of using timber, stone, and conventional construction methods. In addition, when people relocated to the cities to work in the new factories, technological advancements contributed to the loss of rural industries and the growth of urban populations. Such unchecked and quick expansion contributed to the slum-like conditions in several urban areas.

By the 1920s, architects were retaliating against the circumstances brought on by industrialization throughout Europe. For the purpose of reflecting more utopian ideas for the future, a new architectural style has arisen. Modernism, which was made feasible by new building materials and methods, was what it was called.

Many of the structures born out of this trend by the 1930s were created in the International Style. The bold use of novel materials and straightforward geometric shapes—often with white walls supported by stilt-like pillars—were the main characteristics of this. These were devoid of unnecessary decoration that would take away from their main function—to be utilized or lived in.

Among the several architects who helped to shape modernism in the first half of the century, Walter Gropius, Charles Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe were among the most significant. However, until the economy recovered and war-torn towns had to be rebuilt, their ideas were not extensively implemented. This was due to the Great Depression and the Second World War (1939–45). The International Style had become a global approach to construction by the 1950s, standardizing the look of new structures in cities all over the globe.

Unfortunately, this Modernist fascination with geometric utility and simplicity was abused for financial gain. In order to satisfy commissioning authorities’ budgets and meet a resurging demand for development, builders were once again able to use quick-setting, easily handled reinforced concrete and better prefabrication techniques. However, this resulted in a large number of poorly planned structures, which cast doubt on Modernism’s initial goals.

In the 1960s, multi-story housing complexes were constructed in every major British city, according to Le Corbusier’s views on urban design. High-rises that were mass-produced and affordable seemed to be a solution to the issue of housing an expanding inner-city population. The new estates, however, often turned out to be windswept wasteland devoid of necessary social amenities and services, far from serving human requirements. Many of these structures, which were badly designed and built, were later demolished.

By the 1970s, there was a renewed appreciation for how buildings fit within the existing townscape. Historic building preservation or just retaining the fronts of them became more popular. The use of regionally customary construction methods and materials by architects also increased. It was also the emergence of the High Tech architectural style. It publicly displayed the complex building methods employed in order to commemorate technical and scientific advancements. Examples of such structures are the Lloyd’s building in London and Stansted Airport, which are often composed of metal and glass.

Interest in several styles and concepts from the past and present was sparked by disappointment over the failure of many of the bad imitations of modernist architecture. By the 1980s, the coexistence of several architectural styles in a single structure started to be recognized as post modern. Others turned to the classical heritage for inspiration. Smaller scale building design is currently more popular in architecture, reflecting a greater public awareness of environmental problems including energy efficiency. Similar to the Modernists, modern society understands that a well-designed environment enhances quality of life, but that this is not always accomplished by adhering to a single, clearly defined architectural style.

Tall structures from the 20th century will be mostly known for their architecture. They were made practicable by the invention of safe passenger elevators and light steel frames. They started more than a century ago in the US to assist address the desire for more cost-effective land utilization. The skyscraper became a reality as building methods advanced.

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Question 1-6

Complete the table below using information from Reading Passage . Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

Before 18 th centuryExample traditional1 ………. 
1920s introduction of 2 …… steel, glass and concreteexploration of latest technology
1930s – 1950s3……… … geometric forms
1960sdecline of Modernismpre-fabricated
sections4 ……….
1970send of Modernist eratraditional materials5 ……….
of historic buildings
1980s Post-Modernism  6 ………..

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Questions 7-10

Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS from the passage for each answer. 

7. In the 1970s the beginning of ………. era composed of metal and glass.
8. A rapid movement of people from rural areas to cities triggered by technological advance resulted in parts of cities turning in ………..
9. Many of these buildings were poorly designed and constructed and have since been ………..
10. ………… from the 20th century will be mostly known for their architecture.

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Questions 11-13

Reading Passage describes a number of cause-and-effect relationships. Match each Cause (8-12) in List A, with its Effect (A-H) in List B.

Write your answers (A-H) in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet. NB There are more effects in List B than you will need, so you will not use all of them. You may use any effect more than once if you wish.

11. Buildings become simple and functional.
12. An economic depression and the second world war hit Europe. 
13. Less land must be used for building.
A. The quality of life is improved.
B.  Architecture reflects the age.
C.  Light steel frames and lifts are developed.
D.  Historical buildings are preserved.
E. All decoration is removed.F. Modernist ideas cannot be put into practice until the second half of the 20th century.

Improve your performance in Matching Features questions by clicking here to access our comprehensive guide. Learn how to match specific features or characteristics with the options provided in the IELTS Reading section.

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4. badly designed buildings//multi-storey housing//mass-produced, low-cost high-rises
6. co-existence of styles//different stylestogether//styles mixed
11. F
12. H
13. D


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