The Blog post contains the following IELTS Reading Questions
- IELTS Reading True/False/Not Given
- IELTS Reading Note Completion
IELTS Reading Passage – Endless Harvest
Russian explorers and fur hunters arrived on the Aleutian Islands more than two hundred years ago, it is a volcanic archipelago in the North Pacific, and found a landmass that was farther to the north. This land mass Alyeska is referred to as the ‘Great Land’ by the native inhabitants of the island. In 1959, Alaska joined the United States of America as a forty-ninth state, which is one-fifth the size of the mainland 48 states combined. It shared both the longest river system in North America and half the coastline of the United States with Canada. The rivers that exist in the Gulf of Alaska and North America are cold and nutrient rich. It supports millions of birds and about 400 species of fish, shellfish, molluscs and crustaceans. These advantages elevated Alaska’s commercial fisheries into some of the largest in the world. Based on the report of Alaska Department of Fish and Game, In 2000 Alaska’s commercial fisheries landed thousands of tonnes of herring and shellfish, and about million tonnes of groundfish. Salmon is considered to be the true cultural heart and soul of Alaska. The salmano enabled the native culture to flourish and helped to feed bears, eagles and other animals and the soil itself. Five species of Pacific salmon – chinook ; chum ; coho ; sockeye ; and pink, – spawn** in Alaskan waters and 90% Pacific salmon has commercial benefits in North America. If Alaska was an independent nation, then it would have become the largest producer of wild salmon in the world. Catching salmon has not always been healthy. In 1953, Alaska was declared a federal disaster area because overfishing of salmon became severe between 1940 and 1949. When it achieved the status of statehood, the State of Alaska managed their own fisheries with the guidance of the state constitution. During that time, the harvest rate was about 25 million salmon. After a few decades, average catches have steadily increased as a consequence of sustainable management policy. During the 1990’s, annual harvests were about more than 100 million, and on some occasions it had raised over 200 million fish. ‘In-Season Abundance-Based Management’ is the fundamental reason for such an increase. There are biologists throughout the state consistently watching over the adult fish as they are spawning. They sit in streamside counting towers, studying sonar, watching from aeroplanes and talking to fishermen. The salmon season is not pre-set in Alaska. The fishermen know the approximate time of year when they will be permitted to fish, but one or more field biologists can put a halt to fishing in a particular area on any given day. Sport fishing can even be put to Halt. This management mechanism enabled Alaska salmon as well as Alaska salmon fisheries for better improvement. In the rest of the United States, salmon populations are increasingly threatened. A review of the Alaska salmon fishery was commissioned by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in 1999. In 1996, the Council was established to certify fisheries that meet high environmental standards, which allows them to use a label that recognises their environmental duty. Commercial fisheries can be judged with the criteria of MSC. After finding the potential benefits of being identified as environmentally responsible, fisheries requested the council to undergo the certification process. Then MSC sets up a certification committee, consisting of a panel of fisheries experts, gathers opinions and information from biologists, fishermen, government officials, fishermen, industry representatives, non-governmental organizations and others. Some people who watch over the Alaska fisheries thought it would not have the chance to get certification. Salmon throughout western Alaska completely collapsed, when MSC led up to the final decision. Likely, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, chinook and chum rivers are the poorest since statehood. Subsistence communities throughout the region who mostly relied on commercial fishing were shattered. It was a completely unexpected crisis, but still researchers believe it is not caused by the fisheries. Instead, they asserted it happened as a result of climatic shifts, which occurred by the cumulative effects of the el niño/La Niña phenomenon on Pacific Ocean temperatures. Large numbers of salmon eggs were frozen because of the harsh winter. It will be the end, if we take the certification process into account. Nevertheless, the state took action quickly, shutting down all fisheries, even though it is for subsistence purposes. In September 2000, MSC declared that the Alaska salmon fisheries qualified for certification. Seven companies producing Alaska salmon got permission from MSC to put their logo on their products. Certification is given in the format of initial periods of five years, and annual review which ensures that the fisheries are consistent in following the required standards.
Endless Harvest IELTS Reading Questions
Questions 1 – 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
- TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
- FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
- NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage
- Russian explorers arrived on the Aleutian Islands less than two hundred years ago.
- The rivers in the Gulf of Alaska and North America are cold and nutrient rich.
- Salmon is regarded as the true cultural heart and soul of the United States.
- Salmon has the ability to cure digestive problems.
- With the sustainable management policy, the average catching of salmon has steadily increased
- The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) was established in 1996.
- Being identified as environmentally responsible is not fruitful for fisheries.
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Questions 8 – 13
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/ OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
- Russian explorers and fur hunters arrived on the Aleutian Islands over 8__________ ago
- The landmass 9_____ is known as the 10_______ by the native inhabitants of the island.
- Alaska joined the United States of America as a 11_______ state in 1959
- It shared both the longest 12________ in North America and half the coastline of the United States with Canada
- In 2000 Alaska’s commercial fisheries landed thousands of tonnes of herring and shellfish, and about million tonnes of 13______
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Endless Harvest IELTS Reading Answers
4. Not Given
8. Two hundred years
10. Great Land
12. River system
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