Stealth forces in weight loss Answers and Questions

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  • IELTS reading Matching Features
  • IELTS reading Summary Completion

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IELTS Reading Passage: stealth forces in weight loss

Stealth forces in weight loss

{A}The numerous findings by public health experts, medical practitioner, psychologists, biologist, molecular biologists, and nutritionists are about comparable an ivory is to its tail, few say fatness is largely preset by our genes and biology; others attribute it to an plethora of fries, screen-sucking, and soda; still others think that we’re fat because of viral infection, insulin, or the anabolism conditions we run into in the womb. Robert Berkowitz says, “Everyone subscribes to their own little theory,” medical director of the nucleus of weight and Eating Disorders at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. We’re planning to hang onto the fat we have, and some people are biased to create and carry more fat than others. Diet and exercise help, but in conclusion the result will naturally be more complex than pushing away the plate and going for a walk. Nikhil Dhurandhar says, “It’s not as easy as ‘you’re fat because you’re lazy,” an educationalist at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge. “Willpower is not a right of thin people. It’s given out equally.”

{B}Science may nonetheless be years away from offering us a mystery formula for fat loss. The satiety hormone is a pivotal player in the brain’s weight- handling circuitry. Some people make too little leptos; others become deaden to it. And when fat people lose weight, their leptos levels plunge together with their metabolism. The body becomes well organized at using fuel and preserving fat, which assembles it tough to keep the weight off. Fat dieters’ bodies go into a condition of craving, a feeling Rudolph Leibel, an obesity researcher at Columbia University, contrasts to thirst. “Some people might be capable of abiding chronic thirst, but the plurality couldn’t stand it,” says Leible. “Is that an observable issue of a lack of willpower? I don’t think so.  

{C} The government has greatly espoused moderate every day exercise-of the evening-walk or take-the-stairs variety- but that may not do much to move the needle on the scale. A 150-pound person buries only 150 calories on a 30 minute walk, the parallel of 2 apples. It’s good for the heart, less so for the gut. Deirdre Barrett says, “Radical changes are necessary,” a psychologist at Harvard Medical School and author of Wasteland. “People don’t reduce weight by selecting the small fries or taking a little walk twice a day,” Barrett recommend taking a signal from the members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a self- category of more than 5,000 triumphant weight-losers who have hut an average of 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years. Some record members lost weight using low-carb diets; some went low-fat; others avoided refined foods. Some did it on their own; others depended on consulting. That said, not everybody can lose 66 pounds and not everybody requires it. The goal shouldn’t be getting thin, but becoming healthy. It’s sufficient to pare your weight down to the low end of your set range, says Jeffrey Friedman, a geneticist at RockefellerUniversity. Losing even 10 pounds enormously lessens your risk of diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. The point is to not relinquish as you don’t look like a bikini model.  

{D} The discussion between your genes and the habitat begins on day one. Your ideal weight, written by genes, comes out  to get checked early on by conditions even before birth, inside the womb. If a woman has hyperglycemia while she’s pregnant, her children are more probable to be obese, according to a research of nearly 10,000 mother-child pairs. Maternal diabetes may clout a child’s fat risk through an action called metabolic imprinting, says Teresa Hillier, an endocrinologist with Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research and the study’s lead author. The  suggestion is clear: weight may be entrenched very early on, and obese largely moves from mother to child.  Various studies in both animals and humans have manifest that a mother’s obese straightaway increases her child’s risk for obese. The best guidance for moms-to-be: Get fit before you get pregnant. You’ll lessen your risk of difficulty during gestation and increase your chance of having a normal- weight child. 

{E} It’s the $64,000 question: which diets work? It got people amazed: Isn’t there a finer way to diet? A study looked to give an answer. The paper contrasts two groups of adults: those who, after eating, buried maximum levels of insulin, a hormone that sweeps blood sugar out of the  blood circulation and encourages its depot as fat, and those who buried less. Within every group, half were slip on a low-fat diet and half on a low-glycemic-load diet. On average, the low-insulin-buring category got the same on both diets, losing almost 10 pounds in the first six months- but they built up about half of it back by the end of the 18-month study. The high-insulin category didn’t do as well on the low-obese plan, losing about 4.5 pounds, and built up back more than half by the end. But the most victorious were the high-insulin- secretors on the low-glycemic-load diet. They lost almost 13 pounds and fend off. 

{F} What if your fat is prompted not by diet or genes, but by germs-say, a virus? It sounds like a sci-fi scary movie, but analysts recommend some proportions of the fat plague may be a priori to infection by common viruses, says Dhurandhar. The idea of           “ infobesity” came to him 2 decades ago when he was a young doctor therapeutic obesity in Bombay. He identified that a local avian virus, SMAM-1, caused chickens to die, affected with organ harm but also, weirdly, with lots of belly fat. In a test, Dhurandhar found that SMAM-1-infected chickens became fat on the same diet as aseptic ones, which stayed slender. 

{G} Afterwards he moved to the U.S. and onto an actual human virus, adenovirus 36 (AD-36). In the lab, each kind of animal Dhurandhar infected with the virus became fat-chicken  got obese, mice got fat, even rhesus monkeys at the zoo that gather the virus from the habitat suddenly gained 15 percent of their body weight upon subjection. In his latest analysis, Dhurandhar has detached a gene that, when blocked from conveying itself, looks to extinguish the virus’s fatty power. Stem cells take out from fat cells and then reveal to AD-36 accurately blossom into fat cells- but when stem cells are revealed to an AD-36 virus with the key gene constraint, the stem cells don’t contrast. The gene comes out to be obligatory and enough to activate AD-36 related fat, and the goal is to use the analyst to create a type of fat vaccine. 

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IELTS Reading Questions: Stealth forces in weight loss

Questions 1-5

  • Reading Passage 2 has five sections, A-G. 
  • Which section contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
  • NB You may use any letter more than once.

1:- evaluation on the effect of weight loss on different kinds of diets
2:- an example of research that includes relatives of participants
3:- Examples of a group of people who never regain weight immediately after.
4:- long term hunger may appear to be acceptable to most of the participants while losing weight
5:- a continuous experiment may lead to a practical application besides diet or hereditary resort.

Questions 6-10

  • Look at the following researchers and the list of findings below. Match each researcher with the correct finding. 
  • Write the correct letter in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.

List Of Researchers

(A)  Robert Berkowitz
(B) Rudolph Leibel 
(C) Nikhil Dhurandhar
(D) Deirdre Barrett 
(E) Jeffrey Friedman 
(F) Teresa Hillier

6:- A person’s weight is predetermined to a set point by the DNA.
7:- Pregnant mother who is overweight may risk their fetus
8:- The aim of losing weight should be keeping healthy rather than attractiveness
9:-  mall changes in lifestyle will not have a great impact on reducing much weight
10:- Researchers should be divided into different groups with their own point of view about weight loss.

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Questions 11-14

  • Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.

In the Bombay Clinic, a young doctor who came up with the concept ‘infect obesity’ believed that obesity is caused by a kind of virus. Years of an experiment that he conducted on 11………………

Later he moved to America and tested on a new virus named 12…………………..which proved to be a significant breakthrough.

Although there seems no way to eliminate the virus, a kind of 13.…………….can be separated to block the expressing power of the virus. The doctor’s future is aiming at developing a new 14…………………to effectively combat the virus.

Boost your performance in Summary, Notes, Table, and Flowchart Completion tasks. Click here to explore our detailed guide and learn how to effectively complete summaries, notes, tables, and flowcharts in the IELTS Reading section.

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Stealth forces in weight loss Reading Answers

1. E
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. G
6. C
7. F
8. E
9. D
10. A
11. Chickens
12. AD-36
13. Gene
14.  Vaccine


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