What the managers really do Reading Answers And Question

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  • IELTS Reading Matching Features
  • IELTS Reading True/False/Not Given

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IELTS reading passage – What the managers really do

What the managers really do

A.An entry-level position is the most typical choice when students graduate and enter the workforce. This could be an unpaid internship, an assistant position, a secretarial post, or a junior partner position. Traditionally, we begin with easier tasks and progress to complex ones. Young professionals begin their careers with the intention of becoming senior partners, associates, or even managers. Nevertheless, these promotions might be scarce, leaving many young professionals without managerial experience. Understanding the duties and responsibilities of a person in a managerial position is a crucial step. Managers are individuals who are accountable for the work performance of other members. Managers are vested with the formal authority to utilise organisational resources and make decisions. At various organisational levels, managers devote varying amounts of time to the four managerial responsibilities of planning, organising, leading, and controlling.

Nevertheless, as many professionals are already aware, management styles can vary greatly depending on the workplace. Certain management styles are purely hierarchical. Other management styles can be more casual and laid-back, with the manager acting more like a teammate than a rigid supervisor. Numerous experts have developed a more scientific method for examining these various management styles. In the 1960s, eminent researcher Henry Mintzberg developed a three-category organisational model. There are three major functional methods represented by these categories: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

B.Category 1: INTERPERSONAL ROLES are introduced. Interpersonal responsibilities necessitate that managers direct and oversee personnel and the company. Typically, the figurehead is a senior or middle manager. During company meetings, this manager may discuss future organisational objectives or ethical norms with staff. In addition, they participate in ribbon-cutting ceremonies, banquets, presents, and other events linked with the figurehead position. A leader serves as an example for other employees, commands and instructions to subordinates, takes decisions and rallies employee support. They are also accountable for personnel selection and training. Managers must be leaders at all levels of the business; lower-level managers frequently look to upper management as a model of leadership. In the job of liaison, a manager must coordinate the work of people in other work units, forge alliances with others, and work towards resource sharing. This job is especially crucial for middle managers, who must frequently compete with other managers for significant resources while maintaining productive working relationships with them over the long term.

C.Category 2: INFORMATIONAL ROLES are introduced. Informational positions involve managers acquiring and transmitting the information. As technology has progressed, these positions have changed drastically. The monitor assesses the performance of others and implements remedial measures to enhance that performance. Monitors also keep an eye out for external and internal developments that may affect individual and organisational performance. Monitoring occurs at all management levels. The position of a disseminator requires managers to notify employees of organisational and individual developments. In addition, they communicate the company’s mission and goal.

D.Presented Category 3: DECISION-MAKING ROLES. Managers with decision-making responsibilities must create a strategy and utilise resources. There are four specific decision-making responsibilities. The entrepreneur function demands the management to allocate resources to the creation of innovative products or services, or to the expansion of a corporation. The disturbance handler addresses unanticipated difficulties that arise from the internal or external environment and threaten the organisation. The third decisional position, resource allocator, determines which work units receive which resources. Upper-level managers are more inclined to make large, global budget decisions, whereas intermediate managers are more likely to make more detailed allocations. Finally, the negotiator collaborates with others, such as suppliers, distributors, or labour unions, to negotiate product and service agreements.

E.Although Mintzberg’s 1960s study helped to classify manager methods, he remained concerned with studies involving various positions in the workplace. Mintzberg contemplated expanding his research to include more positions, such as disseminator, figurehead, liaison, and spokesperson. Each function would have unique qualities, necessitating the creation of a new categorization system for each role in order to adequately comprehend it.

F.While Mintzberg’s initial research was crucial in initiating the discussion, his techniques have since been criticised by other academics. Even though there were several categories, the manager’s function was nevertheless criticised for being overly complex. There are still numerous non-traditional manager responsibilities that are not reflected by Mintzberg’s original three categories. In addition, Mintzberg’s research was occasionally ineffective. When applied to real-world settings, the findings did not always improve the management process in actual practice.

G.These two criticisms of Mintzberg’s research methodology raised doubts about the research’s applicability to our contemporary understanding of “managers.” However, even if the objections of Mintzberg’s study are accurate, this does not entail that the 1960s research is utterly useless. These scholars did not assert that Mintzberg’s work is invalid. His research serves two beneficial purposes for future research.

H.Mintzberg’s functional approach to management analysis is the first good effect of his work. And he utilised this strategy to present the researcher with a clear understanding of the manager’s job. When conducting a study on human behaviour, it is essential to be succinct about the topic. Mintzberg’s research has helped other scholars precisely define what a “manager” is because, in real-world situations, “manager” and “job title” are not necessarily synonymous. The clarity and accuracy supplied by Mintzberg’s definitions to future research on the topic.

I.The second beneficial effect is that Mintzberg’s research could be viewed as a solid starting point for future research in this sector, providing fresh insights. Research in the sciences is always a slow process. The fact that Mintzberg’s first research contained significant shortcomings does not render it useless to later scholars. Researchers interested in a systematic examination of the workplace have access to previous studies. A researcher need not begin from scratch; prior research, such as Mintzberg’s, has demonstrated which methodologies are effective and which are inappropriate for workplace dynamics. As an increasing number of young professionals enter the labour market, this research will continue to examine and alter our conceptions of the contemporary workplace.

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What the managers really do reading questions

Questions 1 – 2

Choose TWO letters, A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO positive functions of Mintzberg’s research are mentioned in the last two paragraphs?

  • provides watertight classes of managers
  • offers a clear definition of the manager’s function.
  • assists recent graduates in designing their careers.
  • Identifies means for managers to improve their performance
  • creates a novel path for future study

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Questions 3 – 8

Look at the following descriptions or deeds (Questions 3-8) and the list of categories below. Match each description or deed with the correct category, A, B or C.Write the correct letter, A, B, or C, in boxes 3-8 on your answer sheet.NB: You may use any letter more than once.

List of Categories:


3.The creation of a business plan
4.Attending formal events
5.utilising personnel and funding
6.receiving and transmitting communications to associated parties
7.connecting the data to employees and the organisation
8.recruiting the personnel

Improve your performance in Matching Features questions by clicking here to access our comprehensive guide. Learn how to match specific features or characteristics with the options provided in the IELTS Reading section.

Questions 9 – 13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage? In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in passage

9.Young professionals can get managerial experience in the workplace with relative ease.
10.Mintzberg’s idea challenged long-held beliefs regarding management styles.
11.Mintzberg received a substantial amount of research grants for his effort.
12.All managers perform the same duties.
13.Mintzberg’s theory is beneficial for future research. 

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Renewable Energy IELTS Reading Question with Answer

What the managers really do reading answers

1. B
2. C 
3. E
4. A
5. C
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. False
10. Not given
11. Not given
12. False
13. True


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